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  • 重庆英语培训:国外所谓禁书的影响
  • 2014/6/9 9:18:30
  • “禁书”一词的奇妙之处在于,它总是让人在望而却步的同时产生无限的遐想与向往。纵观历史,书之被禁,虽原因各异,却无一不是触犯或挑战了当时社会生活或宗教信仰的敏感“部位”。从1557年罗马教皇保罗四世颁布《教廷禁书目录》至1966年教皇保罗六世终止该目录的出版发行,西方社会以教廷为代表的禁书制度前后延续了四个多世纪。然而,经历了历史长河洗礼的被禁之书,却并未因此而销声匿迹。那么,究竟有哪些书曾历经被禁的命运与焚烧的考验而不“死”呢?我们且来略数一二——

    This classic French satire lampoons all things sacred—armies, churches, philosophers, even the doctrine of optimism itself. In search of “the best of all possible worlds”, Voltaire’s ever-hopeful protagonist instead encounters the worst tragedies life has to offer and proceeds to describe each in a rapid, meticulous and matter-of-fact way. The effect is equal parts hilarious and shocking. The Great Council of Geneva and the administrators of Paris banned it shortly after its release, although 30,000 copies sold within a year, making it a best seller. In 1930, U.S. Customs seized Harvard-bound copies of the book, and in 1944, the U.S. Post Office demanded that Candide be dropped from the catalog for major retailer Concord Books.

    这部法国经典讽刺小说对于所有神圣事物都加以鞭挞嘲讽,包括军队、教堂、哲学家,甚至对乐观主义信条也毫不留情。伏尔泰笔下的主人公对于人生从来都是满怀希望,苦苦寻觅“人世间最为美好的天地”。然而事与愿违,他遭遇到的却是人生最为悲惨的境遇,而在之后讲起这些遭遇时,他的描述竟能不加迟疑、纤毫入微、丝毫不带个人情绪。这样的效果是书的某些部分令人忍俊不禁,而某些部分却令人震惊不已。书一面世,东正教教会和巴黎当局立刻下了禁令,尽管如此,该书一年内的销量还是达到了三万册,成为年度畅销书。1930年,美国海关没收了哈佛版《老实人》。1944年,美国邮政局要求图书零售巨头康科德公司从其书目中去掉《老实人》一书。

    In 1885, the Concord Public Library in Massachusetts banned this book for its “coarse language”—critics deemed Mark Twain’s use of common slang as demeaning and damaging. Little Women author Louisa May Alcott lashed out publicly at Twain, saying, “If Mr. Clemens [Twain’s original name] cannot think of something better to tell our pure-minded lads and lasses, he had best stop writing for them.” In 1905, the Brooklyn Public Library in New York followed Concord’s lead, banishing the book from the building’s juvenile section with this explanation: “Huck not only itched but scratched, and that he said sweat when he should have said perspiration.” Twain enthusiastically fired back, and once said of his detractors: “Censorship is telling a man he can’t have a steak just because a baby can’t chew it.” Luckily for him, the book’s fans would eventually outnumber its critics. “It’s the best book we’ve had,” Ernest Hemingway proclaimed. “All American writing comes from that. There was nothing before. There has been nothing as good since.”

    1885年,马萨诸塞州的康科德公共图书馆因《哈克贝利·费恩历险记》一书语言粗俗而将其查禁。评论家认为马克·吐温使用日常俚语有失体统,危害极大。《小妇人》的作者路易莎·梅·奥尔科特公开抨击马克·吐温说:“如果克莱门斯先生(马克·吐温的本名)想不出用更好的东西来教导我们纯真无邪的少男少女,那就最好放下笔别再为他们写书了。”1905年,纽约布鲁克林公共图书馆效仿康科德,将该书撤出了该馆的青少区,并给出了这样的理由:“书中不仅写到哈克身上发痒,而且描写他抓痒,该说‘汗水’的时候他偏说‘满身大汗’。”马克·吐温对此给与了积极回击。在一次说起那些诋毁者时,他说:“查禁的意思就是告诉人们,因为婴儿嚼不动牛排,所以大人也不能吃。”所幸的是,这本书的拥护者众多,其数量最终大大超过了反对者。厄内斯特·海明威说:“所有的美国文学都得益于这本书,之前从未有一本书能像它这样,这是截至目前我读过的最好的一本书。”

    Huxley’s 1932 work—about a drugged, dull and mass-produced society of the future—has been challenged for its themes of sexuality, drugs and suicide. The book parodies H.G. Wells’ utopian novel Men Like Gods and expresses Huxley’s disdain for the youth-and-market-driven culture of the American. Chewing gum, then as now a symbol of America’s teenybopper shoppers, appears in the book as a way to deliver sex hormones and subdue anxious adults. In Huxley’s vision of the 26th century, Henry Ford is the new God (worshippers say “Our Ford” instead of “Our Lord”), and the carmaker’s concept of mass production has been applied to human reproduction. As recently as 1993, a group of parents attempted to ban the book in Corona-Norco, Calif., because it “centered around negativity”.
    赫胥黎的这部作品写于1932年,描述了一个未来的社会,那个社会麻木不仁、呆滞乏味,那里的一切都是批量生产。这部作品一直因其主题涉及性、毒品和自杀而备受诟病。该书模仿威尔斯的乌托邦小说《人如神》而作,表达了赫胥黎对以年轻与市场为驱动力的美国文化的蔑视。嚼口香糖,不管是当时还是现在,都是美国颓废少女消费者的象征,而在这本书中它却成为一种产生性激素的方式,使焦虑不安的成年人甘受奴役。在赫胥黎所展望的26世纪里,亨利·福特是新的上帝(崇拜者口称“我们的福帝”而非“我们的上帝”),而且汽车制造商大批量生产的理念已经被应用于人类的繁殖。近在1993年,一群父母因其“中心思想太过负面”,曾试图在加州的科罗纳市和诺科市取缔该书。

    It’s both ironic and fitting that 1984 would join the American Library Association’s list of commonly challenged books, given its bleak warning of totalitarian censorship. Written in 1949 by British author George Orwell while he lay dying of tuberculosis, the book chronicles the grim future of a society robbed of free will, privacy and truth. The book spawned terms like “Big Brother” and “Orwellian”, which continue to appear in pop culture. The year 1984 may have passed, but the book’s message remains as relevant as ever.

    《1984》一书对极权主义的审查制度发出了严正的警告,后来却被列入美国图书馆学会的禁书名单,这实在是充满反讽意味,却又合情合理。该书由英国作家乔治·奥威尔1949年所著,当时奥威尔因患肺结核,卧病在床,已病入膏肓。书中记述了一个没有自由意志、没有个人隐私、没有真理存在的社会的灰暗前景。该书创造了“老大哥”和“奥威尔式的”等词,这些词现在仍出现在大众文化中。1984年已成历史,但是这本书所传递的信息却一直和人类社会息息相关。

    The Catcher in the Rye
    By J. D. Salinger
    Within two weeks of its 1951 release, J.D. Salinger’s novel rocketed to No. 1 on the New York Times best-seller list. Ever since, the book—which explores three days in the life of a troubled 16-year-old boy—has been a “favorite of censors since its publication,” according to the American Library Association. In 1960, school administrators at a high school in Tulsa, Okla., fired an English teacher for assigning the book to an 11th grade class. Another community in Columbus, Ohio, deemed the book “anti-white” and formed a delegation to have it banned from local schools. One library banned it for violating codes on “excess vulgar language, sexual scenes, things concerning moral issues, excessive violence, and anything dealing with the occult.”

    塞林格的这本小说于1951年出版,上市不到两周,就飙升至《纽约时报》畅销书排行榜的榜首。这本书描绘了一个16岁叛逆少年三天内的生活;按照美国图书馆协会的说法,该书自出版之日起就一直是“审查机构的最爱”。1960年,俄克拉何马州塔尔萨镇一所高中的管理者解雇了一名英语教师,理由是他把这本小说布置给了11年级的学生阅读。另外,俄亥俄州哥伦布市的一个社会团体认为这本书“与白人为敌”,他们组成请愿团,要求当地学校封杀此书。还有一家图书馆禁了这本书,理由是该书违反了社会常规,书中“充斥着粗俗语言、性爱场景以及引发道德争议的种种事件,而且暴力描写过多,还宣扬神秘主义”。

    First published in France by a pornographic press, this 1955 novel explores the mind of a self-loathing and highly intelligent pedophile named Humbert, who narrates his life and the obsession that consumes it: his lust for “nymphets” like 12-year-old Dolores Haze. French officials banned it for being “obscene”, as did England, Argentina, New Zealand and South Africa. Today, the term Lolita has come to imply an oversexed teenage siren, although Vladimir Nabokov, for his part, never intended to create the association. In fact, he nearly burned the manuscript in disgust, and fought with his publishers over whether an image of a girl should be included on the book’s cover.

    这本书最早由法国的一家色情作品出版社于1955年出版,小说的主人公名叫亨伯特,是个憎恶自己而又智商很高的恋童癖者。他讲述了自己的一生,以及耗噬了他整个生命的那种迷恋——对于像12岁的多洛雷丝·阿泽这样早熟的少女的欲望。法国官方因其离经叛道的色情描写把该书列为禁书,英国、阿根廷、新西兰和南非也封杀了此书。今天,“洛丽塔”已被用做极其性感妖媚的美丽少女的代名词,但对纳博科夫本人来说,他可从未想过要引起这种联想。实际上,他差点儿出于厌恶烧掉这部书的手稿,他还曾就封面上是否应该放一个少女的形象这个问题,和出版商争执不休。

    This book sparked riots around the world for what some called a blasphemous treatment of the Islamic faith (throughout the book, the Prophet Muhammad is referred to as Mahound, the medieval name for the devil). In 1989, five people died in riots in Pakistan and a stone-throwing mob injured 60 people in India. Although Rushdie issued an apology, Iranian spiritual leader Khomeini publicly condemned the Indian-British author to death, putting a $1 million bounty on his head. While European nations recalled their diplomats from Tehran, some Muslim authors, like Nobel Prize–winner Naguib Mahfouz, defended Rushdie and accused the Khomeini of “intellectual terrorism”. Meanwhile, Venezuelan officials threatened anyone who owned or read the book with 15 months of prison. Two major U.S. booksellers—Walden Books and Barnes & Noble—removed the book from their shelves after receiving death threats. And even Rushdie’s publisher, Viking Penguin, was forced to temporarily close its New York City office to improve security. Under the protection of British authorities, Rushdie lived in hiding for nearly a decade.
    这本书引发了全世界的无数暴动,因为一些人认为它亵渎了伊斯兰教(在整本书中,先知穆罕默德被称为魔罕德——中世纪时魔鬼的代称)。1989年,巴基斯坦发生暴动,五人死亡;在印度,一伙暴徒扔掷石块,致使60人受伤。尽管拉什迪公开发表声明道歉,但伊朗精神领袖霍梅尼公开判处这位印度裔英国作家死刑,悬赏一百万美元取他项上人头。欧洲各国纷纷从德黑兰召回自己的外交官,而一些穆斯林作家,如诺贝尔奖得主纳吉布·马赫福兹,则声援拉什迪,指责霍梅尼搞“知识恐怖主义”。同时,委内瑞拉政府威胁,任何胆敢购买或阅读该书的人,将会被处以15个月的监禁。美国两大顶级连锁书店——沃尔登书店和邦诺书店——皆因收到死亡恐吓信,只得把该书从书架上撤下。甚至拉什迪的出版商维京企鹅公司书店也为安全起见,被迫短期关闭其纽约分部。在英国政府的保护下,在将近十年的时间里,拉什迪一直过着隐匿的生活。

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