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千才教育:高考英语中动词的复习要点
千才教育  2015/4/9 17:51:55

千才教育:高考英语中动词的复习要点


一、及物动词与不及物动词
汉语和英语相比,句子结构相对松散,以致同学们用英语表达时容易忽视英语句子的结构即句型的正确用法。针对这一点,学习英语动词要掌握以下要点:
1.不及物动词不能带宾语,也不能用被动语态。
例1 —What should I do first?
—The instructions ____ that you should mix flour and water carefully first.
A. go B. tell C. write D. say
解析:go是不及物动词,其后不能直接跟宾语从句。tell是及物动词,也不能直接带宾语从句,但可以带sb.+that引导的宾语从句。write也是及物动词,必须以人做主语时才能带that引导的宾语从句。say是及物动词,其后可以接that引导的宾语从句,其主语可以是人也可以是物。故选D。
例2 It was already midnight and only three young men ____ in the tea house.
A. left B. remained C. delayed D. deserted
解析:left意为“留下,剩下”时是leave的过去分词。leave是及物动词,可用在leave sb. somewhere或sb. be left somewhere这样的结构中。delay和desert都是及物动词,其后要有宾语,但本题并无宾语,其意也跟题意完全不符。remain是不及物动词,其英语释义是to stay in the same place without moving away,符合题目的要求,故答案为B。
其它常见、易考的不及物动词有consist, belong, appear, disappear, happen, occur, rise等。
2.某些不及物动词后面加上某个特定的介词后相当于一个及物动词,其后可以接宾语,如look at、look for、look after、look into、belong to、consist of等词组。相反,如marry、discuss等及物动词后则不能接介词。由于受母语思维的影响,同学们在答题中常常会出现marry with sb、 discuss aobut sth.之类的错误。
3.及物动词的后面必须带宾语,如discuss、complete、wear等动词。如果这些动作的对象在句中做主语,则该动词一定要用被动语态。
例3 I need one more stamp before my collection ____.
A. is completed B. completes C. has been completed D. has completed
解析:complete是及物动词,因此必须带宾语。但本题中complete的对象做了before从句中的主语,所以complete必须用被动语态。故答案为A。
4.有些动词既可以做及物动词,也可以做不及物动词。当它作不及物动词时,虽然在形式上是主动的,但在意义上仍然是被动的,如change、open、develop、improve、stop、train等词汇。如:The hospital closed at the end of last year. 句中close这个动作没有执行者出现,只是为了说明时间,所以用主动语态,但仍是被动的意义。再如:The club was closed by the police. 这句中close这个动作有执行者the police出现,所以用被动语态。
5.连系动词是不及物动词,也不能用被动语态。
例4 The traffic lights ____ green and I pulled away.
A. came B. grew C. got D. went
解析:green是表示颜色的形容词,可见前面应该用连系动词。come除了在come true这个习语中一般不做连系动词;grow做连系动词时表示“渐变”;get做连系动词时表示“情感、情绪或状态的变化”;go做连系动词可表示颜色的变化(turn也可以)。故选D。

二、近义词
涉及近义词的题目在“单项填空”,特别是在“完形填空”中出现频率最高,也是同学们感到难度较大的一部分内容。掌握近义词的关键是理解其英语释义,而不是对应的汉语释义。有些英语动词的汉语释义相同或相近,但适用的句型不同,复习时要特别注意这些近义词的不同用法。例如:I’ve left my book at home是正确的,而I’ve forgotten my book at home是错误的。leave和forget在这里都是“忘记”的意思,但leave用于leave something somewhere这个结构,forget something后面则不能接地点状语。又如:许多同学知道“同意”一词的英语单词是agree,但如果把“爸爸同意我每天上网”这句话翻译为Father agrees me to use the Internet every day就是一个严重的错句,准确的翻译应该是Father allows/permits me to use the Internet every day。
例5 We want to rent a bus which can ____ 40 people for our trip to Beijing.
A. load B. hold C. fill D. support
解析:load的英语释义是to put a large quantity of something into a vehicle or container,即“往(车上或容器里)装东西”,显然不符合题意。fill的英语释义是if a thing or group fills something, there is no space left,即“挤满、充满(某个空间)”,不合题意。support是“支撑,支持”的意思。hold的英语释义是to have enough space for sth./sb.即“有足够的空间容纳(物或人)”。例如:The movie theater holds 500 people.故正确答案为B。
例6 —Ow! I’ve burnt myself!
—How did you do that?
—I ____ a hot pot.
A. touched B. kept C. felt D. held
解析:Keep(sth.)的英语释义是to have something and not give it back,即“保留,不归还”的意思,显然不符合题意。feel的英语释义是to touch something with your fingers to find out about it,它含有“想了解……”的目的,是有意识的行为。hold (sth.)英语释义是to have something in your hand,即“拿;握;捧;抱(在手里或怀里)”,显然不符合题意。touch的英语释义是to put your hand, finger etc on someone or something,它只表示“接触”。故答案为A。
例7 Mike didn’t play football yesterday because he had ____ his leg.
A. damaged B. hurt C. hit D. struck
解析:hit、strike这两个动词都表示“碰撞,撞击”,但strike比hit用词上更正式些;damage表示“损坏”(to cause physical harm to sth, making it less attractive, useful or valuable);hurt表示“给人带来肉体上的疼痛,使人肉体上受伤”(to cause physical pain to sb.; to injure sb.)。通常不能说damage a person,而应该说成hurt/injure/wound a person。故正确答案为B。

三、短语动词
短语动词使得英语的表现力非常丰富,但由于某个短语动词的意思往往不能仅仅从组成它的单词去理解,并且一个短语动词往往有好几个意思,给同学们的学习带来了很大的困难。对同学们来说,对考试词汇表中的短语动词进行系统的整理,并多接触一些地道的英语是解答涉及短语动词的题目的有效途径。当然,这个过程离不开查阅好的英语词典,因为只有准确理解短语动词的意思,才能真正掌握它们。
例8 Could you please tell me where you bought the shoes you ____ yesterday?
A. tried on B. put on C. had on D. pulled on
解析:try...on是“试穿(衣服、鞋帽等)”(to put on a piece of clothing to see if it fits you or if it suits you, especially in a shop);put… on是“把(衣服、鞋帽等)穿上去”的意思; pull...on是“快速穿上”的意思(to put on a piece of clothing, usually quickly);have...on是“穿着(衣服、鞋帽等)”,故答案为C.
例9 The computer system ____ suddenly while he was searching for information on the Internet.
A. broke down B. broke out C. broke up D. broke in
解析:break out的意思是“(战争、疾病、火灾等)爆发”(start to happen);break up意思是“破碎”(break into a lot of small pieces);break in表示“闯入”(to enter a building by using force, in order to steal something);break down指机器、汽车等“发生故障”(stops working),也可以引申为“(关系等的)破裂、失败”(to fail or stop working in a successful way),故选A。
例10 We’re trying to ring you back, Bryan, but we think we ____ your number incorrectly.
A. looked up B. took down C. worked out D. brought about
解析:look up用在phone number前只能表示“查询”(try to find information somewhere)的意思;work out后面跟number时表示“算出(答案、数量和价格等)”(to calculate an answer, amount, price etc);bring about sth.则表示“带来,导致(结果)” (to make something happen; cause); take down (a phone number)则表示“写下,记下”(write sth.down),故选B。

本文摘录自龙源书刊《中学生天地》

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